5 Letter Words Ending In Tay – The (International) Radiotelephony Spelling Alphabet, commonly known as the NATO Phonetic Alphabet, is the most widely used set of clear code words for communicating in Roman alphabet letters. Technically a radiotelephonic spelling alphabet, it has various names, including the NATO spelling alphabet, the ICAO phonetic alphabet, and the ICAO spelling alphabet. The ITU phonetic alphabet and figure code is a rarely used variant that differs from the code words for digits.
To create the code, a series of international agencies assigned 26 code words acrophonically to the letters of the Roman alphabet with the aim of making the letters and numbers easily recognizable by radio and telephone, regardless of language barriers and quality of connection. The specific code words vary, as some seemingly different words have been found to be ineffective in real-life situations. In 1956, NATO replaced the th-currt set of code words used by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO); This change became an international standard adopted by ICAO that year and by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) a few years later.
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Although the spelling alphabet is often referred to as the “phonetic alphabet”, it should not be confused with a phonetic transliteration system such as the International Phonetic Alphabet.
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The 26 code words are as follows (ICAO spelling): Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Foxtrot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliet, Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo , Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Whiskey, X-Ray, Yankee, Zulu.
“Alpha” and “Juliet” are intentionally pronounced that way to avoid mispronunciation; NATO will also do “Xray”.
Numbers are pronounced as glossed numbers, but with modified pronunciations of three, four, five, nine, and thousand.
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It is known that [the spelling alphabet] was created only after the most extensive tests on a scientific basis in many countries. A strong conclusion is that it is impractical to make a different change to eliminate confusion between the letters of a pair. Changing a word involves rethinking the entire alphabet to ensure that the proposed change to eliminate one confusion does not itself identify others.
Shortly after the code word was created by ICAO (see history below), it was adopted by other national and international organizations, including the ITU, International Maritime Organization (IMO), United States Federal Government Federal Standard 1037C: Glossary of Telecommunications. condition
By the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) (using the spelling “Xray”), the International Amateur Radio Union (IARU), the American Radio Relay League (ARRL), the Association of Public-Safety Communications Officers-International (APCO), and several military organizations such as NATO (using the spelling “Xray”) and the now defunct Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO).
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The same alphabetic code words are used by all agcies, but each agcy chooses one of two different sets of numeric code words. NATO uses the regular glossary numerals (zero, one, two and c. although there are some differences in pronunciation), while the ITU (starting on 1 April 1969)
And IMO defines compound numerical words (nadazero, unone, bisotvo, etc.). In practice it is rarely used, because it is not placed in common agencies.
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A spelling alphabet is used to spell parts of a message with letters and numbers to avoid confusion, because many letters are the same, for example “n” and “m” or “f” and “s”; If there is static or other interference, the state of confusion increases. For example the message “Continue to map grid DH98” can be sent as “Continue to map grid delta-hotel-niner-et”. Using “Delta” instead of “D” avoids confusion between “DH98” and “BH98” or “TH98”. The unusual pronunciation of some numbers is designed to reduce confusion.
In addition to traditional military use, civilian industries use the alphabet to avoid similar problems when sending messages over telephone systems. For example, it is used in the retail industry where customer or site details are communicated over the phone (to authorize credit agreements or confirm stock codes), even if ad-hoc coding is used. It is used by information technology personnel to communicate serial or reference codes (which are usually longer) or other special information by voice. Most major airlines use the alphabet to communicate under the Passenger Name Record (PNR) and, in some cases, with customers. It is also used in a medical context to avoid confusion when transmitting information.
Many letter codes and abbreviations using the spelling alphabet have become popular, such as Bravo Zulu (letter code BZ) “well done”,
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Zulu Time for Checkpoint Charlie (Checkpoint C) in Berlin and Gravitch Mean Time or Coordinated Universal Time. During the Vietnam War, the U.S. The government called the Viet Cong guerrillas and the group itself the VC, or Victor Charlie; The name “Charlie” became synonymous with this power.
This article contains phonetic transcriptions of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the difference between [ ], / / and ⟨ ⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.
The final selection of code words for the alphabet and numbers was made after millions of comprehension tests involving 31 nationalities. A qualifying feature is the possibility of understanding the code word in relation to others. For example, football has a higher probability of being understood than foxtrot in isolation, but foxtrot is superior in long communication.
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ICAO determined the pronunciation before 1956 on the advice of the governments of the United States and the United Kingdom.
However, the pronunciations published by ICAO and other agencies differ, and ICAO’s Latin-alphabet and IPA transliterations are clearly contradictory. At least some of these differences appear to be typographical errors. In 2022 the Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) tried to resolve these conflicts.
Just as words are spelled as individual letters, numbers are spelled as individual digits. That is, 17 is sequenced as “one save” and 60 as “six zeros”, although thousands are also used, and for whole hundreds (numbers where the sequence 00 occurs in d) , the word hundred can be used. That is, 1300 can be read as “one three zero zero” (eg as a transponder code) or “one thousand three hundred” (as an altitude or distance).
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ICAO, NATO and the FAA use variations of Glish numbers as the code words, 3, 4, 5 and 9 are pronounced tree, bird (rhymes with down), fif and niner. The number 3 is specified as wood so that it is not pronounced sri; The long pronunciation of 4 (still found in some glossed dialects) distinguishes it from; 5 is pronounced with a second “f” because the common pronunciation of “v” is easily confused with “fire” (the command to shoot); And 9 has an extra letter to distinguish it from the German word nein “not”. (Prior to 1956, three and five were pronounced without consonants, but as two letters.) For direction shown as the hour position of a clock, “t”, “elev” and “twelve” can also be used. “Requested”.
The ITU and IMO, however, define a different set of code words. These are compounds of ICAO words with Latin prefixes.
There are two IPA transcriptions of letter names from the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN). Both authorities indicate that non-rhotic pronunciation is standard. ICAO’s, first published in the 1950s and reprinted several times without corrections (vd. the ‘golf’ error), use many vowels. For example, it has six low/cutral vowels: [æ aː ɑ ɑː ə]. DIN combines all six single low-cutral vowels into [a]. DIN vowels are partially predictable with [ɪ ɛ ɔ] in closed syllables and [ɪ ɛ ɔ ] and [i e /ei̯ o] in op syllables except for echo and sierra, which have [ɛ] as in Glish, German and Italian. DIN also reduced the number of stressed letters between bravo and x-ray, with ICAO glish respelling those words, and NATO changed the spelling of x-ray to xray so people would know how to pronounce it as one. word .
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There is no official IPA transcription of the numbers. However, glish and Frch have respellings, which can be compared to clarify some ambiguities and inconsistencies.
Before World War I and the development and widespread adoption of two-way radios that supported voice, telephone spelling letters were developed to improve communication on low-quality and long-distance circuits. on the phone.
The first non-military internationally recognized spelling alphabet was adopted by the CCIR (predecessor of the ITU) in 1927. The experience gained with the alphabet led to several changes made by the ITU in 1932. The resulting alphabet adopted by ICAO’s predecessor, the International Commission for Air Navigation and
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